FINGERPRINT CLASSIFICATION - the sorting of fingerprints into file groups so that a file may be set upon the basis of fingerprints alone. Fingerprints are classified by General shape (arch, loop, or whorl), position in finger, and relative size.
RIDGE CHARACTERISTICS (GALTON'S DETAILS) - Fingerprint ridges are not continuous. They break and divide and these points are given specific names;
Bifurcation (forking ridge),
INKED FINGERPRINT - The intentional recording of the friction ridge skin. Using black printer's ink and a fingerprint roller, the ridge characteristics of a particular individual, can be formally recorded on a standard fingerprint card.
LATENT FINGERPRINT - The chance impression, left on an item, through the transfer of perspiration and oils, from the friction ridge skin to the item itself. At times, this transfer can be visible to the naked eye. Most often, it is invisible to the eye, and chemicals or powders need to be added to the surface, in order for the latent print to seen, photographed, and lifted. The word "latent" means hidden and it is these impressions which require the application of powders of chemicals to make them visible.
PATENT FINGERPRINT - a reproduction of the ridges of the finger in a medium such as wet paint, blood, putty, and some soft metals. The is normally visible, however, the impression is reversed as the ridges are impressed in the material.
SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION - 1. The ridge arrangement on every finger of every person is different. 2. The ridge arrangement is permanent throughout the persons life, that is, the ridge arrangement never changes from birth to death. These statements are true also of the ridges on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. Identifications in these areas have the same technical and legal validity as fingerprints.
A.F.I.S. - a computer system that automatically searches a latent fingerprint recovered from a scene, against millions of fingerprints contained within a fingerprint database. The criteria for entering and maintaining fingerprints in the database varies from state to state.
DISSIMILARITY – a difference in which, in the opinion of the examiner, can be explained.
DISCREPANCY – a difference between two patterns, that can not be explained.
DACTYLOGRAPHY - the study of the science of fingerprints
CORE - is the approximate center of the finger pattern impression
INDIVIDUALIZATION - the opinion matching of a latent print to one person as its source to the exclusion of all other people in the world.
CLASS ONE/LEVEL ONE - the general ridge flow of a fingerprint.
CLASS TWO/LEVEL TWO - aspects of a particular ridge path, including bifurcations, endings, divisions; also referred to as minutiae or Galton's details.
CLASS THREE/LEVEL THREE - finer detail concerning individual ridges, such as the shape of the edges, their width, and the presence of pores.
ACE-V - an acronym for Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation, Verification. ACE-V describes the recommended process for comparison of a latent print to a known print.
To cite this website: Crime Scene Forensics, LLC, Matthews, NC; www.crimescene-forensics.com